What is interactive fiction?
It works like this: you read the beginning a story, and then suddenly
there's an angle bracket and a blinking cursor. That means it's your
turn to type. For in interactive fiction (IF for short), you don't just
read the story — you get to shape it.
So are these "choose your own adventure" stories?
No — you're not just picking from a menu, but can type
anything you can think of. You do need to have an idea of what the
programs will be able to understand: I hope to have a short tutorial up in
the not too distant future, but in the meantime,
here's an introduction I wrote lo these many years ago.
So these things are games, then?
Some are, in that you have to solve puzzles in order to "win." Others are
like the more traditional stories you'll find on other pages of my site,
with the twist that you get to participate in the telling. You'll be able
to see which are more game-like and which are more story-like by reading
the descriptions below.
"Look, the game's brilliant. Go play it. […] Beyond the
superb, brain-aching premise, and a fantastically interesting way
to explore the foibles of classic adventures, it's also superbly
The first time I ever saw someone play a text adventure was in
fifth grade. One of the sixth-graders didn't go to outdoor ed,
and therefore spent the week in my fifth-grade classroom, playing
Scott Adams's Impossible Mission on a TRS-80 while the
rest of us did our schoolwork. At recess we crowded around him
and shouted out commands to try. I really wanted a turn at the
keyboard, but this guy wouldn't let anyone else near it. It
would be another couple of years before I played a text adventure
My big chance came when my father signed up for the Dow Jones
online service, which offered not just stock listings but sports
scores, movie reviews, Grolier's Encyclopedia, and a small
selection of games, among which was Adventure. A bargain
at a mere $144/hour! (In 1984 dollars!) Fortunately for my
father's bank account, I eventually learned about Orange County's
free BBSes, most of which were WWIV boards written in Pascal.
Borland's Turbo Pascal let you swap in external modules called
"door games," some of which were text adventures, and I've had
the code to a few of these kicking around for (ulp!) a quarter
of a century now. For a long time I've thought that it might be
kind of fun to port one over to Inform, and I finally found the
time to do so. Warning! These things were not exactly up to
Infocom standards, let alone those of the modern day. This is a
nostalgia project. Swords, trolls, magic spells, hit points.
But no acoustic coupler necessary!
Game or story? This is a game in the olden style.
Easy or difficult? Moderately difficult. (The testers
did convince me to add some modern features like pronouns
so less of the difficulty would come from the parser.)
Good for newcomers? Nope. This one's for the old-timers.
How much of the above isn't actually true? About 23%.
Can you dry yourself off with a towel?
first release: 2012.04; current version: 1.06
Game or story? Story; almost no gamelike elements.
Easy or difficult? Easy; if stuck, just keep exploring.
Good for newcomers? I hope so!
first release: 2003.12; current version: 1.07
Winner of four Xyzzy Awards, including Best Game of 1999.
"It's like juggling 24 things, eight of them being axes, and
eight being live kittens."|
You are Primo Varicella, Palace Minister at the Palazzo del
Piemonte. This title is unlikely to impress anyone. Piedmont is
the laughingstock of the Carolingian League, and the Palace
Ministry has devolved into little more than a glorified (and not
even especially glorified) butlership: your duties include
organizing banquets, overseeing the servants, and greeting
visitors. It is safe to assume that the War Minister and the
Coffers Minister lose little sleep over your presence in the
But Charles Martel was a Palace Minister, and he turned back the
Moors at Tours lo these many years ago. His son Pepin was a
Palace Minister, and he became King of the Franks. It is not
unprecedented for Palace Ministers to make something of
themselves. One might even say it is tradition. All you need is
That opportunity has arrived.
King Charles was not an old king. Indeed, he had a good forty
years left in him. Perhaps even fifty. But an assassin's bullet
or a well-placed icepick can steal fifty years in less time than
it takes to say the words. And a sudden illness? An illness such
as the one King Charles contracted two days ago? Perhaps not as
quick, but just as effective. For if this letter you've just
received is correct, just such a disease has claimed the life of
the King. This leaves the principality in the hands of his son,
Prince Charles. Prince Charles is five years old. Piedmont, it
seems, will be requiring the services of a regent for the
foreseeable future. And you can think of no better candidate than
Of course, you shall scarcely be alone in seeking the position.
The King's Cabinet is not a small body. And your fellow ministers
will no doubt try all sorts of unseemly tactics in their quest
for the throne. Some will try bribery. Others will employ
treachery. A few may even resort to brute force. But would Primo
Varicella stoop to using one of these methods? Perish the
thought! You're better than that. You shall employ all three.
It will be an uphill struggle, to say the least. Of those soon to
be clamoring for the regency, you are among the lowest in rank.
But you are not without a number of advantages. The drama to
unfold will play out in the palace — your
palace. Time is also on your side: at present, only you and the
Queen know of the King's demise. And you've known of his illness
for a couple of days now, days in which you've hatched a flawless
plan. There should be little to stand in the way of your ascent
to power so long as you put your plan into action immediately.
Or at least as soon as this manicure is finished. One must have
Game or story? Elements of both.
Easy or difficult? Difficult (and long).
Good for newcomers? Probably not, but if they're looking
for a challenge…
You can also read a
essay about Varicella.
first release: 1999.08; current version: 1.14
1st Place, 1998 Interactive Fiction Competition
- "This is a work so hugely influential to IF development
that anyone interested in the history of the form should try
it." —Emily Short
- "Photopia is important to video games as a whole, to the
advancement of our understanding of the interactive medium."
- "I don't think any other work of art has ever affected me
to the extent that Photopia has." —playthisthing.com
The fifteen people who think I'm famous think so because of
Photopia. It's not my best work — and I should
certainly hope not, given how long ago I wrote it —
but sometimes you have the right idea at the right time, and I
happened to hit upon a new approach to interactive fiction right
when people were ready for it. I have since developed this story
for other media, and so to me this original version reads like a
primitive ancestor of those adaptations… but if you landed
at my site following some other link, and wondered "who is
this guy?", most people would probably point you to
Photopia to answer your question.
Game or story? Story; almost no gamelike elements.
Easy or difficult? Easy to make progress, but may be
confusing at first.
Good for newcomers? Yes.
You can also read about the making of Photopia.
first release: 1998.10; current version: 2.01
Winner of three Xyzzy Awards, including Best Puzzle of 2002.
You are locked in a cell.
This in and of itself is not a new thing: spending a little time
behind bars every now and again is one of the hazards of the job.
But up until now it's been for little 50-crown and 100-crown jobs
out in the countryside, and you've ended up in decrepit little
gaols that managed to hold you for, what, a minute? Possibly two?
This, though, this is different. You thought you'd try one last
job, land one big score: five thousand crowns. And now you're the
newest resident of King Tyrak II's deepest, darkest dungeon.
Scream all you like: no one will be coming to rescue you. No one
will even be coming to feed you. If you ever want to see the sun
again, you will have to pull off an audacious escape —
Game or story? Game, with some story elements.
Easy or difficult? Somewhat difficult.
Good for newcomers? Maybe, if they like puzzles.
first release: 2002.01; current version: 1.12
Stand steady at the tee… head down… slow backswing.
Now, drive your tee shot 220 yards down the fairway, splitting a
pair of sandtraps. Loft a five iron onto the green. And sink a
twenty foot putt for a birdie!
You control the swing and aim throughout 9 championship quality
holes. The fairways and greens are beautifully manicured, but the
sand traps are deep… and the rough is… rough!
Game or story? Game, with a few story elements.
Easy or difficult? Depends on your hand-eye coordination.
Good for newcomers? I suppose, but not as an introduction
first release: 2001.01; current version: 1.01
Xyzzy winner, Best Use of Medium 2000
- "Unsettling. Brilliant. Damn you." —Ian Finley
- "Really good game, but REALLY CREEPY. I honestly woke up
with nightmares after playing it." —Sean Gaffney
- "This was the most unsettling piece of IF I've ever had
the pleasure to play." —Oren Ronen
- "I think I'm now warped for life." —Alan Monroe
Game or story? Story; almost no gamelike elements.
Easy or difficult? Easy to make progress, but confusing.
Good for newcomers? No way.
You can also read about the making
first release: 2000.02; current version: 1.01
The phone rings.
Oh, no — how long have you been asleep? Sure, it was
a tough night, but… This is bad. This is very bad.
The phone rings.
Game or story? Story.
Easy or difficult? Easy, and very short.
Good for newcomers? Sure. This has actually become a
standard intro-to-IF piece.
first release: 2000.01; current version: 1.11
I-0 (Interstate Zero)
Winner of two Xyzzy Awards, including Best Game of 1997.
You're Tracy Valencia, first-year student at the reasonably
prestigious University of Dorado. Sure, it's not Berkeley —
hell, it isn't even Stanford — but it's light-years
better than Dorado State, where your older brother Trevor goes.
Dorado State's just a party school. Trevor makes a point of
rubbing this in every time he calls.
He'll be able to rub it in in person soon enough: it's
Thanksgiving Day, and you're driving home. Daddy was perfectly
willing to buy you a plane ticket, but like you told him on the
phone, there are much better things to spend the money on.
Birthday presents, for instance — you turn eighteen
tomorrow. Besides, it's only a four-hour drive.
Two and a half hours into said drive, the car starts making a
noise no piece of machinery should ever make. It's the sort of
sound a rhesus monkey might make being forced down a garbage
disposal. Now, Dorado is nothing but scorching desert from the
time you cross the coastal mountains until you reach the river;
true, it's the scorching desert in which you grew up, but
sentimentality aside, it's not exactly the best place in the
world to find yourself stranded. But you've got to do something
about this noise, if only because it's drowning out the stereo.
So you pull over. You're just about to switch off the ignition
when the car goes dead of its own accord. You try to start it up
again, but absolutely nothing happens.
Guess what, Tracy? You're stuck on the loneliest stretch of
Interstate Zero miles away from the last sign of civilization.
It's twenty minutes to noon and the temperature's well over a
hundred and twenty. You already miss the air conditioning. It's
beginning to look like Ed and Sandy Valencia's only daughter
might not make it for Thanksgiving dinner...
Game or story? Story, with some gamelike elements.
Easy or difficult? Easy, but some paths are harder than
Good for newcomers? So I've been told.
first release: 1997.01; current version: 1.21
Return to the top page!